Despite the huge amount of different capacitors, they all serve the same purpose, to store electrons, like a tiny battery. The basic capacitor work by separating to conductive plate by an insulator (called a dielectric). This temporary store of power has many uses which we will get into later, like removing power spikes.
Capacitor come in many different sizes and are measured by their capacitance, in units called Farads. A capacitance of 1 farad will store 6.28 X 10^18 electron when attached to 1 volt. 1 farad however, is quite big, so most are in mircofarads (0.00001F) or picofarads (0.000000000001F). While it doesn't matter if you use to higher capacitor it must meet or exceed the your needs, so make sure it is rated for you maximum voltage and is 0% to 100% above your storage needs.
When you connect a capacitor to a battery the electron quickly the plate on the negative side. Gradually electron will leak through the the dielectric to discharge it slowly, or you can connect the positive and minus together to discharge it very quickly.
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